The Hen’s Reproductive System and Issues

August 17, 2015
Issues with the reproductive system and egg laying in backyard chickens.

If you think about it, chickens lay hundreds of eggs during their lifetime. Many times their eggs arrive just on schedule just as predicted; gorgeous warm orbs of goodness. Hens are amazing! Although rare, sometimes reproductive system and egg laying issues arise that leaves chicken keepers scratching their heads. We’ve all had weird eggs. The perfect place is to start is inside the chicken and what leads up to the laying of an egg.

Fact: The darkness of the egg yolk is determined by the amount of xanthophylls that a chicken eats. Foods high in xanthophylls include yellow corn, grass, and marigold petals.

An Overview: Egg Laying

The chicken’s reproductive system is made up of two ovaries and two oviducts. However, most times only the left ovary and oviduct are functional. Usually the right one does not develop fully. Yet, if the left ovary and oviduct become damaged, then the right ovary and oviduct can develop and function to take over egg laying.

The ovum is the yolk portion of the egg and that is made in the ovary. When the ovum is complete, it is released into the oviduct. This is called ovulation- the same as in people. While the ovum travels down the oviduct the other components of the egg are added including the albumen (egg white) as well as the shell. Just after the egg is laid, the hen’s ovary releases another ovum into the oviduct within the period of about an hour. This is enables hens to lay an egg approximately every 26 hours

Fact: Hens need approximately 14 hours of sunlight to stimulate egg laying.

All About the Chicken’s Reproductive System and the Making of an Egg

The oviduct is about 26 inches long. It twists and turns over on itself in the hen’s body. It is comprised of 5 parts. I have listed them in the order from beginning to last:

Infandibulum: Fertilization takes place here. The egg is here for no longer than a quarter of an hour. This muscular part of the oviduct moves to “grab” the ovum. This is the first step to becoming an egg.

Magnus: This is the longest part of the oviduct and here is where the albumin is added to the egg.

Isthmus: The inner and outer membrane form here.

Shell Gland aka Uterus: Here calcium from the hen’s bones is used to add the shell to the egg. The shell’s color is then applied. The egg spends up to 20 hours in the shell gland for it’s finishing touches.

Vagina: The vagina is all muscle and helps to push the egg out of the hen’s body. It is also where the protective bloom is added to the egg that seals out bacteria, viruses and so forth.

Fact: Sperm glands are located where the shell gland meets the vagina. Here a hen can store a rooster’s sperm for up to 2 weeks! As the hen lays her egg, sperm is simultaneously excreted from the glands back up into the infandibulum to fertilize the next egg on the journey.

Types of Weird Eggs and Why They Happen

Let’s talk about those weird eggs now. Here are some of the more common ones that backyard chicken keeper’s come across.

Double Yolker: When a hen releases two eggs (ova) into the infandibulum at just about the same time.

No Yolk: When a bit of the oviducts lining has sloughed off and the chicken’s body is fooled into thinking it was an ovum. Tiny eggs with no yolk are typically called fart eggs or wind eggs.

Shell-less Eggs/Rubber Eggs: Usually an indication of a nutritional deficiency- Calcium, Phosphorus or Vitamin D. New healthy pullets also lay these eggs until their bodies get the “hang” of it. Read more about these weird eggs here.

Blood spots: Can occur when a hen is more physically active during ovulation. A bit of blood from a local blood vessel is deposited. They are safe to eat.

Meat spots: Found close the albumen of the egg, it is simply a bit of oviduct that sloughed off while the egg was in production. They are safe to eat.

Egg inside an Egg: Wow! These are rare and very weird eggs. The egg that is just about ready to be laid, is turned around and goes back up into the oviduct for a double application of albumen and shell.

Salpingitis & Lash Eggs:  Salpingitis simply means inflammation of the oviduct. This is usually caused by E Coli or Salmonella and sometimes a virus. Sometimes it requires antibiotics and other times it resolves on its own. During this time hens can lay a “caseous mass of pus” this is what folks call a lash egg. Laying a lash egg should not be a death sentence. These hens can live years after they lay one.

Complications of Egg Laying for Chickens

Egg Bound Chicken: When a hen is unable to pass an egg due to size. A soak in a warm bath with Epsom salt can sometimes help. Sometimes the egg breaks inside prior to passing. When this happens, parts of the eggs, including yolks and shells make their way back up into the reproductive tract and can lead to infection called egg yolk peritonitis. This can be fatal.

Cystic Oviduct: When the right ovary and oviduct try to function in addition to the left. This can lead to ovarian cysts and a swollen abdomen for the chicken. They can sometimes be drained by a veterinarian.

Vent Prolapse: Often the first sign of prolapse can be blood streaked eggs. Although this is normal when young chickens (pullets) begin to lay. A portion oviduct protrudes from the vent. To treat and prevent other chickens from pecking, remove the hen. Place her in a dark place with food and water to help prevent egg laying from being stimulated. Apply 1% Hydrocortisone cream to the vent twice per day. For severe cases seek assistance from a veterinarian.

Learn why chickens lay all their eggs in one nesting box.

Photo Credit: Tilly’s Nest


Author/Blogger/Freelancer-Sharing adventures with backyard chickens, beekeeping, gardening, crafting, cooking and more.



15 thoughts on “The Hen’s Reproductive System and Issues”

  1. Thanks for the awesome info! It's so interesting to learn about the different things that can happen to an egg, and what causes it. Ours just started laying a few weeks ago (still waiting on a few to start), and one has been laying double yolked eggs a lot. We had one lay a very thin shelled egg that fell apart in the box- thankfully my husband pulled the box before they had a chance to eat it. It's so fun to see eggs out there!

  2. I am concerned that my almost six month old Jenny is egg bound. How warm should the bath be, and how long do I keep her in it? Thanks for any advice. She is my sweetest hen, and I don't want to lose her, or have her suffer.

    • The bath should be warm not hot. Soaking for at least 10 minutes can be good. A bet can also give a calcium injection to help her pass the egg as well. Good luck and keep me posted.

  3. I got this website from my pal who shared with me regarding this web page and at the moment this time I am visiting this web page and reading very informative posts at this time.

  4. We had an egg from one of our girls that was covered in a mucus and small yellow bits. On investigating further in the barn I found an egg attached to something very smelly about 6 inches long and 1.5 inches wide.

    It was REALLY smelly and made me gag. What could this be and will the chook recover ?


  5. when a hen comes egg bound how long would it take to start noticing she is having an issue? if she is egg bound and then the egg become crushed how long would egg yolk peritonitis take?

    • Usually you would notice an egg bound hen by her behavior that starts from the time she tries to lay her egg. The egg yolk peritonitis can take a few days for the infection to set in.

  6. My eggs have a LOT of shed reproductive lining in them and I know it’s SAFE to eat, but it’s gross. It didn’t used to be anywhere near as bad and I worry that I’m feeding them something that is CAUSING it to happen. I give them organic layer crumbles, amish corn, BOSS, oyster shells and black soldier fly larvae. Anyone know if I’m giving them too much of something, maybe protein that I might be making the problem worse?

    • Hi, I’m not quite sure that I understand what you are talking about. This is not normal for the flock. My guess would be perhaps a nutritional imbalance. I would give them a good quality layer feed- I like the Purina line the best right now. 90% of their diet should be food. I would limit treats to approx 2 tablespoons per birds once per day. So sounds like much much less treats and see how things are in a month’s time.


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Sharing an inspired life from the New England seaside. Chickens, Bees, Gardens, Art and Yummy Goodness.