Worming chickens is a topic of much debate in the poultry world. Some people never worm. Some people worm every six months. The decision is your own personal preference. However, there is a lot of information to take into consideration.
Worms are considered endoparasites and are found inside of the chicken’s body. They are often referred to in the veterinary world as Helminths. Helminths include all internal parasites living within the body of the chicken. The most common types of worms found in chickens include:
Hair worms ~ These are found in the crop, esophagus, proventriculus and intestine. They are very thin and an inch or less in length. They can use earthworms as intermediate hosts before infecting your chickens. Symptoms of hair worm infestation include green diarrhea, pale egg yolks, anemia and a hunched over appearance with wing dragging. With large infestations, birds can die.
Round Worms ~ These are found in the birds digestive system. These worms are 2-4 inches long and live in the middle of the chicken’s digestive tract. Infestation occurs from birds ingesting droppings. These worms can cause chickens to become anemic, have pale egg yolks and appear depressed. In young growing birds, they will prevent normal weight gain. These too can kill your chickens. Large roundworms can even sometimes migrate into the cloaca and end up inside of an egg.
Gape Worm~These worms are found in the trachea and lungs. Fully grown gape worms are “Y” shaped and about 1 inch long. Chickens become infected either by eating droppings or by eating earthworms or snails that act as intermediate hosts. Infested chickens can also transmit the worms as they cough up the worms and another bird ingests what that bird coughed up. The symptoms of gape worm infestation include respiratory distress. The chickens can be seen coughing, shaking their heads and stretching their necks. Sometimes, when held, these birds make a gurgling noise. These worms can cause suffocation. Young birds, up to 8 weeks old, are incredibly susceptible.
Caecal Worms~ These worms are very common and have no symptoms. However, they can transmit blackhead to Turkeys. It is for this reason, that many individuals that keep chicken and turkeys do not allow their flocks to intermingle. These worms are found in the caecum.
A key piece of information in regards to worming is that the life cycle of the worm is 2-8 days. If one chooses to worm their flock, this must be followed up with either preventative measures or another cycle of medication.
An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure~ Benjamin Franklin
I have only wormed my own personal flock once. When my girls were 10 weeks old, Tilly came down with symptoms of gape worm
. I had been feeding them lots of slugs and worms that I found in the garden. I have no regrets about it. I believe it possibly saved her life.
Since then, I have done quite a bit of research regarding this and have since learned that there are very simple things that chicken keepers can do to prevent worm infestations in their flocks. Many of these take less than 10 minutes a day.
Apple Cider Vinegar~ I add 1 tablespoon of apple cider vinegar to each gallon of water that I give to my girls. This helps maintain an acidic environment in the gastrointestinal tract of the chicken, creating a less than optimal environment for worms.
Food Grade Diatomaceous Earth (DE)~ This prehistoric fossil remnant sure packs a punch against many critters that “bug” chickens. As I feed the chickens, I mix in the DE to make-up about 2% of the chickens’ feed. This can be used as a treatment as well as prevention. A study out of Clemson University showed that the fecal egg count declined in dairy cows that had FGDE added to their feed.
Plain Yogurt with Live and Active Cultures
~ I believe that feeding my flock yogurt helps to maintain and add to the normal bacteria living within their guts. This not only maintains and promotes gastrointestinal health, but also is a great source of calcium. The University of Florida suggests milk can also benefit chickens that develop the habit of egg eating.
Vitamins and Electrolytes with Probiotics
~ I add this to their water supply about once a week in the summer and daily in the winter. Again, this helps to maintain and promotes gastrointestinal health. I love the Merrick’s Blue Ribbon Poultry Electrolytes
~ Some people use garlic as a preventative as well as a treatment. Garlic cloves can either be added to your chickens’ water supply or sprinkled on their food. The University of Kentucky
recommends combining it with mint for full effect. This can be used as treatment and prevention. See the scientific studies below.
Raw Pumpkin Seeds
~Ground Raw Hulled Pumpkin seeds have a coating on the seed that paralyzes the worm and allows it to pass out of the intestine. This coating chemical is called cucurbitacin
. These only work for tapeworm and round worm. This is very easy to do for your flock in the fall. When you carve or use your pumpkins, be sure to save the insides for your flock. Click here
for the scientific evidence.
Keep the shavings inside of the coop clean and dry. Avoid the chickens from eating off the floor out of the shavings in the coop.
Keep the run neat and tidy and if possible, rotate or change where the flock stays outside periodically.
Shortly cut grass where the chickens roam helps the sunlight kill the worm eggs.
Sometimes the only way to know if your flock is suffering from a worm infestation is a trip to the avian veterinarian. Having their poop examined under a microscope is the only way to be sure that no worms are present in your flock. There are medications available through your veterinarian, but come with strict directions and many of them are not approved for use in poultry. If you do use any of these worming medications there is also a withdrawal period from the medication. During that time, the eggs must be thrown away, as they are unsafe for consumption. Also, do not feed these eggs back to your chickens. You will only be redosing your flock through medication present in the eggs.
At the time of publication of this post (August 2011), these medications are available in the US for worming. Recommendations regarding their use can change at anytime.
safe for use in egg laying hens with meat only withdrawal period
(herbal/no egg withdrawal)
Piperazine (Wazine)– cannot be used in egg laying hens*****READ THE PACKAGE INSERT
– safe for use in egg laying hens with wwithdrawalperiod.
Rooster Booster Triple Action Wormer
– no withdrawal period
Droncit- 10mg/kg-unclear of egg withdrawal period
(These precautions are those recommended at time of publication and are subject to change. Please research.)Be sure that the wormer you select is recommended for the types of worms you are treating.
There are also some medications listed in The Chicken Health Handbook
that are often used but not approved for worming. It is recommended to consult with a veterinarian if you feel you need one of those medications.Please keep in mind that worming your flock is difficult on the chickens’ bodies. Also keep in mind that different medications treat different types of worms. If you chose to worm your flock, avoid worming during winter in freezing temperatures, during molting and under 6 weeks of age. Most people that do worm choose to do it in spring and fall.
The Chicken Health Handbook by Gail Damerow
Rybaltovskii OV. 1966. On the discovery of cucurbitin—a component of pumpkin seed with anthelmintic action. Med Parazitol (Mosk) 35:487–8
Plotnikov AA et. al. 1972. Clinical trial or cucurbin (a preparation from pumpkin seeds) in cestadiasis. Med Parazitol (Mosk) 41(4): 407-411.
Evaluation of the anthelmentic activity of garlic (Allium sativum) in mice naturally infected with Aspiculuris tetraptera. Ayaz E, Türel I, Gül A, Yilmaz O. Yenisehir Ibrahim Orhan Vocational School, Uludag University, 16900, Bursa, Turkey.
Traditional antihelmintic, antiparasitic and repellent uses of plants in Central Italy. Guarrera PM.J Ethnopharmacol. 1999 Dec 15;68(1-3):183-92.
Antioxidant and schistosomicidal effect of Allium sativum and Allium cepa against Schistosoma mansoni different stages. Mantawy MM, Aly HF, Zayed N, Fahmy ZH. Therapeutic Chemistry Department, National Research Center, El Behooth Street, Dokki, Giza, Egypt.
Therapeutic effects of Allium sativum and Allium cepa in Schistosoma mansoni experimental infection. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo. 2011 May-Jun;53(3):155-63. Mantawy MM, Ali HF, Rizk MZ. Source Therapeutical Chemistry Department, National Research Center, Egypt.